Dampak Krisis Energi China bagi Indonesia

Reporter Afrida Syakira; Editor Farhan Mukhatami

Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Uap (PLTU) sebagai sumber energi listrik di masyarakat
Sumber:  Twitter-@qz

Sejumlah negara mengalami krisis energi. Mulai dari China, Eropa, hingga India. Menurut laporan dari Flobal Times, krisis listrik di China telah memicu pemadaman listrik di beberapa provinsi seperti Guangdong, Heilongjiang, Jilinm dan Liaoning. Pemadaman listrik tersebut terjadi sejak Juni 2021.

Akibat dari krisis energi ini membuat aktivitas warga dan jam operasional bisnis terganggu. Pemerintah China setempat menyatakan bahwa beberapa perusahaan mengurangi jam kerja pegawai akibat masalah tersebut. Hal ini tentu akan mengancam pertumbuhan ekonomi negeri Tirai Bambu.

Tidak hanya China, Eropa pun mengalami kekhawatiran akan terjadinya krisis energi yang menyebabkan tarif energi seperti gas alam semakin melonjak sejak September 2021. Selain itu, tagihan listrik terhadap rumah tangga dan bisnis juga meningkat.

Di India, krisis listrik dalam beberapa bulan mendatang juga terancam. Hal ini disebabkan karena stok batu bara mengalami penurunan ke tingkat terendah.

Namun, krisis energi di sejumlah negara tersebut justru akan memberikan dampak positif bagi negara Indonesia. Banyak peluang yang dapat dimanfaatkan Indonesia dalam meraih penghasilan dan menambah pendapatan devisa negara.

Pengamat Energi dan Reformainer Institute Komaidi Notonegoro mengungkapkan, produsen batu bara di Indonesia akan berpotensi meraup keuntungan berkali-lipat.

“Efek krisis energi akan berimbas positif, karena harga komoditas naik. Eksportir batu bara lumayan dapat benefit dari situ,” ungkap Komaidi, Selasa (12/11).

Batu Bara sebagai salah satu bahan bakar energi listrik
Sumber: tabascoal.com 

Namun, produsen batu bara tak bisa seenaknya meningkatkan kegiatan ekspor. Pasalnya, ada kewajiban bagi perusahaan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan batu bara di dalam negeri yang disebut Domestic Market Obligation (DMO).

Kebijakan itu mewajibkan produsen untuk menjual 25 persen dari total produksi untuk memenuhi kebutuhan listrik di Indonesia. Dengan kata lain, batu bara itu harus dijual ke PT. PLN (Persero).

Selain itu, Abra Tattov selaku perwakilan dari Ekonom Institute for Development of Economics and Finance (Indef) mengatakan, lonjakan harga batu bara di tengah krisis energi ini memang sangat menggiurkan bagi produsen dan pemerintah. Namun, pemerintah harus tetap tegas dengan kebijakan DMO. Jika ada perusahaan yang melanggar dan tidak memenuhi kebutuhan dalam negeri, maka perusahaan tersebut harus diberi sanksi.

Tak hanya itu, mahasiswa pun turut berpendapat dalam kasus ini. Fadly Maulana selaku mahasiswa UIN Jakarta mengatakan, bahwa Krisis energi yang dialami beberapa negara memberikan keberkahan bagi Indonesia. Namun, tentu dalam ekspor supply batu bara tidak bisa bebas begitu saja.

“Menurut saya, ini sebuah berkah ya bagi Indonesia, di mana supply ekspor batu bara bisa meningkat sehingga menjadi keuntungan besar bagi RI. Namun, tentu tidak bisa sebebas itu saja ya dalam hal ekspor supply batu bara, alangkah baiknya penuhi dulu kebutuhan dalam negeri, baru supply ke luar negeri. Batu bara ini kan stoknya bisa habis ya, jadi harus diperhitungkan baik-baik untuk supply ke dalam negerinya dulu,” ujar Fadly.

Ia menambahkan, pemerintah juga harus mempercepat pembaruan energi dan beralih ke energi baru terbarukan, sebab jika kita hanya mengandalkan batu bara dan gas alam tentu jika dipakai terus menerus sumber daya alam tersebut akan habis.


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